Esther 1:12, Question 3. Why are there two terms for Achashverosh’s anger?

  • According to the Malbim, the two terms used for the anger of Achashverosh are external and internal. “Katzaf” really means froth, which is a physical substance, whereas “cham” really means heat, something rather invisible. He was angry for two reasons, after all – a personal, ego-related reason, and a public, political reason.
  • According to the Maharal, some of the anger was from himself, and some from Heaven, which fits nicely with the idea that H-Shem controls the rulers of the world (see our earlier post for Dec. 12, ’11).
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