- R’ Elisha Galico and the Malbim explain that Achashverosh specified Haman’s attendance was mandatory. This slapped Haman’s pride, which was one of Esther’s intentions.
- The Dena Pishra writes that although Esther commanded his being there, Haman went for his own reasons – pride and bragging rights.
ה וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ מַהֲרוּ אֶת–הָמָן לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת–דְּבַר אֶסְתֵּר וַיָּבֹא הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהָמָן אֶל–הַמִּשְׁתֶּה אֲשֶׁר–עָשְׂתָה אֶסְתֵּר
5. And the king said, “Rush Haman to do the word of Esther.” And the king and Haman came to the drinking party that was made by Esther.
- The M’nos HaLevi writes that Esther’s invitation produced (at least one of) the desired results in that Achashverosh hated that Haman was invited. He rushed him out of frustration. He also quotes a book called Shaarei Bina that the party was already prepared; Achashverosh did not want Haman to keep Esther waiting.
- The Vilna Gaon and Maharal both write that Achashverosh saw that Esther was in great discomfort, and so rushed Haman so that Esther would not suffer any longer.
- The Megillas Sesarim says Achashverosh was concerned that Haman would leave or try to get out of going, so he rushed him to come, even against his will.
- The Ben Ish Chai writes that Esther wanted Haman rushed. In a hurry, Haman would not have the chance to eat before attending the feast, and would be more affected by the drinking. Why would Esther’s intent influence Achashverosh? The Ben Ish Chai continues that this is the reason for the verse to refer to Achashverosh as the King, meaning that H-Shem rushed Haman because Esther wanted Him to.
- The Malbim writes that Esther describes the party as one she made in order to parry off any objections to postpone the feast. Since it is made, she intimated, it is ready already.
- R’ Yehonasan Eibshutz writes that, since this feast will occur on the 15th of Nisan, it is the Yom Tov of Pesach, and the meal is prepared because she had to prepare it before Yom Tov. In contrast, when Esther invites them to the second feast (Esther 5:8), she does not say she made it ready because that meal could be prepared then without the halachic restrictions of Yom Tov.
- As a hint that this occurred on the 15th of Nisan, the M’nos HaLevi points out that the verse, itself, has 15 words.
- Rashi explains that Esther invited them to a party to get them drunk, as the name of a feast (mishteh, from shetiya, drink), would imply.
- The Vilna Gaon writes that another reason she invited them to a party because he might be in foul mood due to her recent transgressing of his rule in visiting him un-summoned. Esther would have wanted him in a more agreeable mood before making her request.
ד וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם–עַל–הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב יָבוֹא הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהָמָן הַיּוֹם אֶל–הַמִּשְׁתֶּה אֲשֶׁר–עָשִׂיתִי לוֹ
4. And Esther said, “If it is good for the king, the king and Haman should come today to the drinking party that I made for him.”
The Talmud (Megillah 15b) has a total of twelve reasons for Esther to have invited Haman to the feast:
a) R’ Eliezer says she was laying traps for him, as it says in Tehillim (69:23), “their tables will be their own traps.” In other words, Haman’s presence may give him the opportunity to say or do something he shouldn’t, giving the king prerogative to have his head.
b) R’ Yehoshua says Esther learned this from the house of her father1: Mishlei (25:22) teaches, “if your enemy is hungry, feed him bread.” In other words, one method of taking on one’s enemy is by surrendering some non-essential concession to him, thereby ultimately taking control of the situation when the opportunity strikes.
c) R’ Meir says Esther did this so that Haman would not take good advice, and rebel. In other words, Esther was hoping that her invitation’s stroking Haman’s ego would encourage him to rebel.
d) R’ Yehuda says Esther invited Haman so that he would not suspect that she is a Jewess.
e) Similarly, R’ Nechemia says Esther invited Haman in order for the Jews to not become complacent from their prayers and repentance by comforting themselves that they have a “sister” in the palace who can save them from this genocide.
f) R’ Yose says Esther invited Haman so that he would be available to her at all times. In other words, she wanted her “enemies close” to be able to manipulate his behavior to the benefit of her people.
g) R’ Shimon ben Menasya says Esther invited Haman thinking that, perhaps, H-Shem will become “emotional,” either through mercy or anger, and create a miracle to rescue the Jewish people.
h) R’ Yehoshua ben Karcha says Esther invited Haman in order to smile at him, evoking the king’s jealousy, leading him to execute both Haman and Esther. She was thus willing to sacrifice herself for her people.
i) Rabban Gamliel says Esther invited Haman because Achashverosh was fickle, and prone to inconsistent behavior. If the king gets the opportunity to spend more time with Haman, the statistical chances of him changing his positive opinion of him grow exponentially. Furthermore, had Haman not been at the feast when Esther convinced Achashverosh to kill Haman, his fickleness may lead him to change his mind by the time Haman is found.
j) R’ Gamliel says that all of these answers may explain why Esther invited Haman, but we still require the answer of the R’ Eliezer the Moda’ai to explain why Esther invited only Haman, and not the other advisers. He says she intended to make the rest of the court jealous, since Haman was invited to the meal, whereas they were overlooked. Class participant CRL suggested that having the other advisers attend would require the presence of Mordechai, who should have been celebrating the Pesach seder at the time.
k) Rabba says Haman was invited because “pride comes before destruction” (Mishlei 16:18). Like the English expression, the taller they are, the harder they fall, Esther is bating Haman’s ego to help precipitate his destruction. Incidentally, the Rokeach points out that the gematria of the above phrase from Mishlei (zehu lifnei shever ga’on) (7+5+6+30+80+50+10+300+2+200+3+1+6+50=750) is equal to the words from this verse from Esther that Haman was invited to the feast (hamishteh) (5+40+300+400+5= 750).
l) Abayey and Rava both say Esther’s intent can be seen in the verse “in their heat, I prepare their meal” (Yirmiya 51:39). This verse refers to the drunken death of Balshatzar, and Esther hoped this drunken revelry, too, would kill both Haman and Achashverosh. Incidentally, the Rokeach points out that the gematria of the above word for “in their heat” (bichumam) (2+8+6+40+40=96) is equal to Haman (5+40+50=95) with its kollel.
m) When Rabba son of Avuha met with Eliyahu HaNavi, he asked him which of these opinions is correct regarding Esther’s intent. Eliyahu HaNavi answered that they are all correct.
- Eliyahu’s answer lends support, writes Rav Shwab, to the idea that when the verse says Esther donned royalty (Esther 5:1), it means she gained ruach hakodesh, the Holy Spirit.
- Rabbeinu Bachya points out that the initial letters of “the king and Haman should come today” (yavo hamelech viHaman hayom) spell out H-Shem’s Name. H-Shem’s Name is not ever explicitly in Megillas Esther.
- According to Ibn Ezra, this is because this was a public document in Persia, and the Rabbis were concerned that the Persians might supplant their own gods’ names for H-Shem’s if it were there. Another reason is to teach that H-Shem is available in all situations – good and (seemingly) bad.
- The Ari, in his list (Pri Etz Chaim) of twelve places where H-Shem’s Name is secretly hidden in Megillas Esther, lists this as one of the places.
- The Ohel Moshe writes that H-Shem’s Name is specifically at this point because the Talmud (Sukkah 14a) writes that when the righteous pray, they overturn H-Shem’s Anger to Mercy.
1Rashi points out that, not actually growing up in her father’s house, Esther must have overheard this teaching from Mordechai’s conversations with his students.
- The Maharal says that Achashverosh offered Esther only half of his kingdom because any more would make it so that it is no longer his; he would no longer be the majority stock holder in that corporation. He therefore offers her 49% of the kingdom.
- The Talmud (Megillah 15b) says he was not willing to give her something that would “chotzetz,” divide the kingdom – the Beis HaMikdash.
- R’ Dovid Feinstein writes that Achashverosh wants to feel in control of the world, and a rebuilt Temple guarantees that a portion of his population – ever so small – would have allegiance to something other than him.
- Rashi (on the Talmud there) quotes the Mishnah (Yoma 5:2) that the Beis HaMikdash is the center of the kingdom because it contains the even shasiya, the foundation stone from which the earth was made. Based on this, the Ohel Moshe asks, why did Esther not ask for the Temple to be rebuilt? He brings the Megillas Sesarim that Amalek needs to be destroyed before the Temple is rebuilt.
- The Sfas Emes notes that it is ironic that Achashverosh does not want the Temple rebuilt. After all, it was his decree that inspired the Jews to unite, earning them the privilege to build the second Beis HaMikdash. The Sfas Emes points out that this order is alluded to in our weekday Shemoneh Esrei prayer. First, we pray that H-Shem eliminate the wicked, then we pray that H-Shem elevate the righteous, and only then do we pray that H-Shem rebuild Yerushalayim1.
- R’ Moshe Meir Weiss mentions that we first mention the righteous and then the rebuilding of Yerushalayim because it is not possible to take ownership of the Land without righteous leaders. Without holiness, there is no protection.
- As a Kabbalistic allegory, the Rema writes that the body requires half of the malchus (royal spirituality), while the other half has to be material and physical. The holiest people in the world still need to invest in this physical reality.
- Perhaps another reason Achashverosh considered Yerushalayim so important to his rule can be gleaned from an earlier discussion in the Talmud (11a) that quotes a braisa saying that only three kings – Achav, Achashverosh, and Nebuchadnetzer – ruled the entire known world. The Talmud asks why Sancherev was not included in this list, and responds that he ruled everything except Yerushalayim. In effect, not controlling Yerushalayim means not being king of the entire world. As such, Achashverosh would have been reluctant to part with the city that held the key to his inclusion into such an exclusive group.
1In the Purim story, too, first Haman is defeated, then Mordechai is promoted, and then Israel received permission to return to the Land.