Esther 9:24, Question 3. Why does the verse stress that Haman hates all the Yehudim?

  • The Alshich writes that by stressing that Haman hates all the Yehudim, Mordechai was making it amply clear that Haman’s hate was not just a personal vendetta against him. Indeed, as noted earlier, he hated all Jews.
  • In that sense, according to the Me’am Loez, Haman was worse than Pharaoh; whereas Haman (Esther 3:13) wanted to kill all of the Jews, Pharaoh (Shemos 1:16) wanted to kill male Jews only.
  • R’ Meir Simcha of Dvinsk notes that, historically, hatred of Jews escalates when they ignore their faith.
  • As the Rosh Yeshivah of Brisk, R’ Meshulam Dovid Soloveitchik, explains, Haman hated all Jews, regardless of the efforts of some to conform to his whims in an effort to befriend him, like those Jews who attended Achashverosh’s feast against the advice of their contemporary sages.

Esther 9:24, Question 2. Why does the verse call Haman an oppressor?

The Maharal explains that the verse calls Haman an oppressor because a tzorer (oppressor), in contrast to an oyev (enemy), hates someone for no reason. Like those anti-Semites who do not even know any Jews, oppressors do not care about the behavior – good or bad – of the object of their hate.

Esther 9:24, Question 1. Why does the verse repeat Haman’s lineage (see Esther 3:1)?

כד כִּי הָמָן בֶּןהַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי צֹרֵר כָּלהַיְּהוּדִים חָשַׁב עַלהַיְּהוּדִים לְאַבְּדָם וְהִפִּל פּוּר הוּא הַגּוֹרָל לְהֻמָּם וּלְאַבְּדָם

24. Because Haman son of Hamdasa the Agagite, oppressor of all the Yehudim thought regarding the Yehudim to annihilate them, and threw pur (which is a lot) to terrify and annihilate them.

According to Malbim, the verse repeats Haman’s lineage from Agag that it already mentioned (Esther 3:1) to emphasize that Haman, as a descendant of Amalek, hated all Jews – not just Mordechai.

Esther 9:23, Question 4. Why does the verse stress that the Yehudim also did what Mordechai writes about them?

  • The Vilna Gaon writes that the verse’s account of the Jews “doing what Mordechai wrote” refers to their giving charity and gifts.
  • Malbim explains that those Jews residing in the walled cities did not start to celebrate on their own, but only began when Mordechai’s decree went out.
  • M’nos HaLevi notes again that by writing it down, Mordechai retroactively transformed the Jews’ voluntary actions into the obligatory mitzvos of Purim.
  • R’ Dovid Feinstein adds that although the celebrations of Purim started on the Jews’ initiative, they submitted to the rule (and changes) of the sages.
  • The Dena Pishra writes that, at first, the Jews were upset with Mordechai for not bowing down to Haman (Esther 3:2), but now they recognized the wisdom behind Mordechai’s actions.
  • R’ Dovid Moshe Valle also points out that the Jews realized now that Mordechai had Ruach HaKodesh because he was able to summarize the events they witnessed into this multi-level text we have before us.