Esther 9:29, Question 3. Why is Megillas Esther attributed to Esther?

  • In the view of the Ohel Moshe, by the verse using the word vatich’tov (“and she wrote”), which is a singular, feminine verb, it intends to emphasize Esther’s role because she risked her life approaching Achashverosh (Esther 4:16) in order to save the Jewish people1.
  • The Ginzei HaMelech wonders why Megillas Esther is attributed to Esther if both she and Mordechai co-authored the work. He suggests that Esther deserves the bulk of the credit because the Talmud (Megilla 7a) records how Esther insisted on Purim’s perpetuity, arguing with the reluctant Sages about writing this book to remember her “for generations.” This is why Megillas Esther is attributed to her.
  • According to the Alshich, another reason why Megillas Esther is attributed to Esther is because it was her idea (Esther 5:4) to have the series of feasts in which she finally accused Haman of his perfidy. to stress that all was ultimately accomplished through the power of prayer.
  • Esther thus added to the text, as the Ginzei HaMelech makes clear, an emphasis of the actions over the events.
  • Furthermore, as R’ Eliyahu Dessler writes, the very fact that Esther began Megillas Esther with the Achashverosh’s feast over a decade before Haman’s decree shows that the threat to our existence started then, as the Jews’ Sages like Mordechai were warning at the time.

1Similarly R’ Chaim Shmulevitz writes in Sichos Mussar (Vayikra) that the name the Torah uses for Moshe out of the ten alternatives listed in the Midrash (Vayikra Rabba 1:3) is meant to emphasize the mesiras nefesh (“self-sacrifice”) of Basya, the daughter of Pharaoh, who gave him that name.

Esther 9:28, Question 5. Why does the verse place nit’charim (remembered”) before v’na’asim (“performed”)?

  • R’ Moshe Dovid Valle writes that the verse places nit’charim (“remembered”) before v’na’asim (“done”) because the holiday will be remembered above, and performed below.
  • In the Shelah’s opinion, remembering is written before doing because it alludes to the Halachic requirement (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim 685:1) for a public reading of Parshas Zachor (Devorim 25:17-19 ) on the Shabbos preceding the holiday of Purim.
  • As the Sfas Emes emphasizes, since the Jews remember H-Shem’s kindness, they become worthy of new miracles being performed.

Esther 9:28, Question 4. Why does the verse use the term v’na’asim (“done”)?

  • Rashi explains that the verse uses the term v’na’asim (“done”) because the actions performed to celebrate Purim are feasting, joy, delicacies, and gifts.
  • The Ginzei HaMelech quotes the Talmud (Shabbos 130a) that a mitzva is to be celebrated joyfully because then it will continue joyfully into perpetuity. This joy allows us to tap into mystic power of the mitzva.

Esther 9:28, Question 3. Why does the verse use the term niz’charim (“remembered”)?

  • In Rashi’s view, the verse uses the term niz’charim (“remembered”) because Purim is remembered with the public reading of Megillas Esther on Puirm. The Talmud (Megilla 18a) stresses that one cannot merely memorize the story, but must read it from a scroll. This idea comes from a gzeira shava1: just as regarding Amalek the Torah (Shemos 17:14) uses the “zichron” (remembering) in reference to writing about those events “in a book,” so too, these events must be read from a book. Elsewhere, the Talmud (Yerushalmi Megilla 2:3) similarly writes that this verse justifies the sages’ writing of the tractate, Megilla.
  • Based on this, the Brisker Rav wonders why there was a need for Mordechai’s court to authorize the requirement for Megillas Esther to be included in TaNaCh. This verse should have sufficed! His son, HaGriD, answers that this is because there are no halachos learned directly from NaCh. This is similar to Tosfos’ opinion (Megilla 5a) regarding learning the laws of fast days from a verse in Yirmiya.
  • R’ Yechezkiel Abramsky notes that without the Oral Torah, we would not remember (nor, obviously, celebrate) the Purim story.

1a A hermeneutical rule in which a lesson is learned from an oral tradition of an analogy. See the Braisa of Rebbe Yishmael in the introduction to Sifra.

Esther 9:28, Question 2. Why does the verse repeat the name of the holiday?

According to Sifsei Chachamin, the verse repeats the name of the holiday because Purim is mentioned in Megillas Esther by name five times. One reason for this is that there are five unique mitzvos of the day: matanos la’evyonim, mishloach manos, the public reading of the Megillas Esther, the feast, and possibly the saying of “al hanisim” in our prayers. As mentioned earlier, the Mishna (Megilla 1:1) teaches that there are a total of five days when it is possible to fulfill one’s obligation of hearing the annual public reading of Megillas Esther. However, it will not cease (be kept completely) for two of those days. For that reason, the word is written in its complete form twice.

Esther 9:28, Question 1. Why does the verse imply multiple days of Purim?

כח וְהַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה נִזְכָּרִים וְנַעֲשִׂים בְּכָלדּוֹר וָדוֹר מִשְׁפָּחָה וּמִשְׁפָּחָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וְעִיר וָעִיר וִימֵי הַפּוּרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֹא יַעַבְרוּ מִתּוֹךְ הַיְּהוּדִים וְזִכְרָם לֹאיָסוּף מִזַּרְעָם

28. And these days should be remembered and performed in each generation and generation, family and family, state and state, and city and city. And these days of the Purim shall not pass from before the Yehudim, and their remembrance shall not end from their seed.

  • According to the Talmud (Megilla 20a), the verse uses the plural vimei (“and days”) because the public Purim reading of Megillas Esther in the daytime cannot begin until sunrise, and can last the entire day until sunset.
  • R’ Dovid Feinstein writes that the plural implies both Adar 14th and 15th, or both Purim and Shushan Purim.
  • The Ben Ish Chai, however writes that the plural alludes to 11th – 15th of Adar, days on which the Mishna (Megilla 1:1) teaches that the public reading of Megillas Esther for Purim can theoretically be validly performed under various circumstances.

Esther 9:27, Question 4. What does the verse mean by “v’lo ya’avor” (“and not to pass over”) and “kich’tavam” (“as their writing”)?

  • According to Malbim, by using the words v’lo ya’avor (“and do not go over”), the verse indicates that there should be no lapse of time without Purim. In other words, although one Beis Din (“Rabbinical Court”) can overturn another Beis Din’s ruling, Purim cannot be overturned.
  • R’ Shlomo Bloch, a student of the Chafetz Chaim, writes that this verse proves that one should eat the festive meal of Purim early in order to be sure to not miss the latest time to fulfill that aspect of the mitzva.
  • The Turei Even on the Talmud (Megilla 9a) notes that “kich’tavam” (“as their writing”) means that the text of Megillas Esther must be written in the Hebrew language and Ashuris script to fulfill the mitzva of the public reading on Purim.