Esther 8:14, Question 1. Why are the riders confused?

יד הָרָצִים רֹכְבֵי הָרֶכֶשׁ הָאֲחַשְׁתְּרָנִים יָצְאוּ מְבֹהָלִים וּדְחוּפִים בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַדָּת נִתְּנָה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה

14. The runners, riders of the rechesh the achashtirans, left confused and pushed by the word of the king. And the law was given in Shushan, the capital.

  • The M’nos HaLevi explains that the riders are confused because they cannot understand why their message was a decree to protect the Jews, as opposed to their confidence earlier (Esther 3:15), since Jew-hatred was their modus operandi.
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Esther 8:13, Question 3. Why is mi’oiveihem (“from their enemies”) spelled deficiently?

  • Perhaps mi’oiveihem (“from their enemies”) is spelled deficiently without a letter vuv because the gematria (40+1+10+2+10+5+40=108) is the same as the word chamas (“corruption”) (8+40+60=108) and limabul (“to a flood”) (30+40+2+6+30=108). In the story of Noach, the Torah (Bireishis 6:13) tells us that when the world became filled with chamas, H-Shem decided to punish it with a flood. The hatred that comes along with creating enemies necessitates a strong Heavenly response to put the world back in the proper order.

Esther 8:13, Question 2. Why does atidim (“ready”) have a Masoretically different read (kri) than written (ksiv) version?

  • According to R’ Dovid Feinstein, the word for “ready” as written (atudim) with a vuv implies permanence, in a state of remaining. In other words, the Jews should remain ready for future events. He quotes the Talmud (Shabbos 88a) about the Jews being miraculously coerced by H-Shem into accepting the Torah at Sinai under a threat of annihilation. In contrast, the Jews re-accepted the Torah at the end of Megillas Esther (Esther 9:27) under no such threatening pressure, and under not such obvious miracles.
  • Ginzei HaMelech writes that this could also be an allusion to the continuing future battle of the Jewish people against Amalek. He quotes the words of the Rambam (Mishneh Torah, Hilchos Megillah 2:18) that all of the works of TaNaCh will no longer be needed once Moshiach comes. The exception to this is Megillas Esther. The Ginzei HaMelech explains that the war against Amalek mentioned in the Purim story will still be relevant after Moshiach. It is a day for which the Jews should continually be prepared.

Esther 8:13, Question 1. Why does the verse use the term galui (“revealed”)?

יג פַּתְשֶׁגֶן הַכְּתָב לְהִנָּתֵן דָּת בְּכָלמְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה גָּלוּי לְכָלהָעַמִּים וְלִהְיוֹת הַיְּהוּדִיים [הַיְּהוּדִים] עַתִודִים [עַתִידִים] לַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לְהִנָּקֵם מֵאֹיְבֵיהֶם

13. Copies of the decree gave over the law in each state revealing to all the nations to allow the Yehudim to be ready for this day to avenge themselves from their enemies.

  • The Kad HaKemach explains that the verse uses the term galui (“revealed”) because, as opposed to Haman’s decree, which was intended to be secretive, this decree was meant to be fully known by all.

Esther 8:12, Question 2. Why do the letters stress that this would occur in all of the provinces?

  • The Malbim points out that in the wording of Haman’s letter, Haman had left out the detail that the attack would occur in every state so that the governors would not know yet that he planned to have a mass genocide. Haman did not want them to know that other governors received the same orders. Thinking their orders were unique, the governors would focus on the work at hand, and not be unnecessarily concerned and overwhelmed regarding the success of the operation.

Esther 8:11, Question 5. Why do the letters call the threat against the Jewish lives “al nafsham” (“on their souls”)?

  • In Machir Yayin, the Rema writes that the verse’s use of the phrase “al nafsham” (“on their souls”) rather than “al gufam” (“on their bodies”) implies that the Jews’ targets were their spiritual enemies, not their physical enemies. In other words, Jewish survival depends upon their defending themselves from sin.

  • The Sfas Emes focuses on the word al (“on”). He explains in this context that teshuva out of a sense of love is greater than teshuva out of fear. According to him, the Jews were on a higher level at this point – no longer threatened with annihilation – and the verse therefore uses the word al.