- The Maharal explains that, on a simple level, the “statement” is attributed to Esther to emphasize that her status as queen of Persia aided in Purim’s being accepted.
- Furthermore, Kedushas Levi points out that Esther actually argued with the Sages who wanted Purim on Nisan 16, since that was the actual day when Achashverosh punished Haman, and put an end to his plot. She argued that if Purim will then remain on the same day as Pesach, it would not be as obvious, and will end up being forgotten.
- R’ Yehonason Eibshutz notes that her self sacrifice is the reason for Esther’s being credited with the holiday and book in TaNaCh.
- The Ben Ish Chai finds an allusion to this in “Eishis Chayil,” Shlomo haMelech’s praise of great women. The verse there (Mishlei 31:31), the gematria of yadeha (“her hand”) can be broken up into yad (10+4=14) and eha (10+5=15), alluding to the 14th and 15th of the month of Adar, both established by Esther’s hand.
כח וְהַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה נִזְכָּרִים וְנַעֲשִׂים בְּכָל–דּוֹר וָדוֹר מִשְׁפָּחָה וּמִשְׁפָּחָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וְעִיר וָעִיר וִימֵי הַפּוּרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֹא יַעַבְרוּ מִתּוֹךְ הַיְּהוּדִים וְזִכְרָם לֹא–יָסוּף מִזַּרְעָם
28. And these days should be remembered and performed in each generation and generation, family and family, state and state, and city and city. And these days of the Purim shall not pass from before the Yehudim, and their remembrance shall not end from their seed.
- According to the Talmud (Megilla 20a), the verse uses the plural vimei (“and days”) because the public Purim reading of Megillas Esther in the daytime cannot begin until sunrise, and can last the entire day until sunset.
- R’ Dovid Feinstein writes that the plural implies both Adar 14th and 15th, or both Purim and Shushan Purim.
- The Ben Ish Chai, however writes that the plural alludes to 11th – 15th of Adar, days on which the Mishna (Megilla 1:1) teaches that the public reading of Megillas Esther for Purim can theoretically be validly performed under various circumstances.
- According to the Talmud Yerushalmi (Megillah 1:4), the verse stresses that the holiday would be celebrated “every year and year” to demonstrate that Purim will never be abolished, even in the time of Moshiach.
- R’ Yaakov Emden points out that these days were already established as days of joy. After all, Moshe Rabbeinu was born on the seventh of Adar, so his bris (“circumcision”) should have been scheduled for the 14th. However, the Talmud (Sotah 12a) says that he was born circumcised, so he only required a symbolic pin-prick called hatafas dam bris (Shulchan Aruch Yoreh Deah 262:1 and 264:1), and this procedure is not held on a Shabbos (Shulchan Aruch Yoreh Deah 260:2 and 263:1). Therefore, Moshe’s bris was on the 15th of Adar.
- The Meshech Chochma explains that these days were chosen because nobody was fighting on these days, and the Jews could commemorate Purim by focusing on the miracle rather than on death.
- In Darash Moshe, R’ Moshe Feinstein, explains that the verse repeats the dates of the holiday because Adar 14th was an extra day for which Esther had to ask. The Jewish people wanted it to always be remembered that their success was due to their trust in their leaders and prophets.
- The Ben Ish Chai notes that the mispar katan of Haman (9+5=14) is the same as the date of the first day of Purim, and the mispar katan of Amalek (7+4+3+1=15) is the same as the date of the second day of Purim.
- In his introductory comments on the Talmudic tractate Megillah, the Ramban explains that the idea behind sending the books near and far means that they were sent through the entire expanse – from Hodu to Cush (Esther 1:1) – of Achashverosh’s kingdom.
- Me’am Loez suggests that they were even sent to other countries.
- The Dena Pishra explains that since Mordechai’s goal was to create a feeling of achdus (“unity”), he even wanted to reach those Jews whose lack of faith and subsequent fear motivated them to flea battle.
- Rav Schwab, however, understands “close” as those Jews who were living in Shushan and celebrating on the 14th of Adar, whereas “far” refers to those Jews who returned to Eretz Yisroel and celebrated Shushan Purim on the 15th of Adar in the only place where one must certainly do so – the holy city of Yerushalayim.
- The Sha’ar Yissachar writes that the books were sent near and far so no Jew could ever devise the excuse that they are too far from holiness. Rather, the near and far have equal access to the holiness that emanates from Purim.
- Keser Shem Tov quotes that Talmudic (Megillah 17a) rule that Megillas Esther on Purim must be read as written, and not backwards. The Keser Shem Tov then wonders why anybody would think to read it backwards. He posits that the Talmud means that nobody should ever consider the Purim story as some ancient, historic event without real relevance to our lives.
יז בְּיוֹם–שְׁלשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וְנוֹחַ בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר בּוֹ וְעָשׂה אֹתוֹ יוֹם מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה
17. On the thirteenth day of Adar, and [they] were relieved on the fourteenth of it, and they made it a day of feasting and joy.
- Megillas Sesarim writes that the celebration was on the fourteenth of Adar because the conquest required more time in Shushan since it was the center of Haman’s supporters. The Jews needed more time to conquer it, and then they could celebrate.
- Rav Elisha Gallico explains that the Jews did not realize the depth and extent of the miracle until they had the opportunity to rest.
- The Sfas Emes, continuing with his perspective of seeing Megillas Esther and Purim as a war against the spiritual forces of Amalek, explains that they rested after their conquest specifically to remind the Jews that we are not celebrating our survival, but rather the destruction of Amalek. We therefore celebrate the day we rested, returned to Torah, and became spiritually renewed rather than the day of success in battle.
טו וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ הַיְּהוּדִיים [הַיְּהוּדִים] אֲשֶׁר–בְּשׁוּשָׁן גַּם בְּיוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וַיַּהַרְגוּ בְשׁוּשָׁן שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וּבַבִּזּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת–יָדָם
15. And the Yehudim who were in Shushan gathered also on the fourteenth of the month of Adar. And they killed in Shushan three hundred man. And in their spoils they did not send their hands.
- The Targum Sheini indicates that the three hundred mentioned in this verse were all leaders among Amalek. It continues that Zeresh ran away (see # 521 above) together with 70 remaining sons of Haman, Shimshi was killed in battle, and Haman’s other sons were among the 300 killed. The point is that nobody left alive could positively be traced to Haman’s family. He was wiped out mida kineged mida, as he had planned to do to the Jews.
- Maamar Mordechai writes that these 300 came to fight in order to avenge the death of Haman, their former leader.
- On the other hand, Yad HaMelech explains that fewer people were killed because they were afraid of the Jews’ military prowess.
- The Ginzei HaMelech notes that the Rambam (Mishneh Torah, Hilchos Megillah 1:5) states that Shushan Purim is fully celebrated as Purim on the fifteenth of Adar in cities that were walled from the days of Yehoshua. The Ginzei HaMelech explains that this is the reference point because in the days of Yehoshua (Yehoshua 11:20), too, H-Shem instilled a false sense of confidence into the minds of the Jews’ enemies. Similarly, these 300 enemies illogically felt emboldened to do battle against the Jews despite the obvious fallacy of their imagined success. The prophet (Yechezkiel 39:2-3) promises that a similar incident will happen in the time of Moshiach, bimheira biyameinu.
- Bireishis Rabbasi (Bireishis 45:22) notes that these 300 enemies were killed in the merit of the 300 silver coins Yosef gave Binyamin.