21. To establish on them to make the doing of the fourteenth day of the month of Adar and the fifteenth day of it in every year and year.
The Ginzei HaMelech notes that the word, kayam (“established”) is used ten times in Megillas Esther. This parallels the Ten Commandments in order to demonstrate that Purim is an extension of the fulfillment of the Torah, not an addition to it.
In Chiddushei HaLeiv, R’ Hanoch Leibowitz quotes the Talmud Yerushalmi (Megillah 1:5) which says that 85 elders, among whom were 30 or more prophets, struggled with fitting the addition of Purim with the idea behind the words (Vayikra 27:34) “these are the mitzvos.” which do not allow for adding new mitzvos. R’ Leibowitz notes that these wise people were said to “struggle” over these words because that is what great leaders and Halachic deciders to – they struggle. He quotes the Chut HaMeshalesh (8) of R’ Chaim Volozhinner in which the author writes that he struggled to free a particular agunah (“married woman whose missing husband had not granted her a divorce”) to remarry. R’ Leibowitz notes that, beyond the intellectual logic and knowledge to figure out a law, a posek needs to have an overwhelming desire to help others, and to struggle for them, and this is why the verse stresses that such a leader – Mordechai – established these holidays for his flock.
The Talmud (Megillah 5b) explains each of the different expressions for this holiday to mean a different method for celebrating the day. Simcha (“joy”) is interpreted as not giving eulogies (in the event of a death); v’mishteh (“and feasting”) is interpreted as prohibiting fasting; and v’yom tov (“and the holiday”) is interpreted as prohibiting work on Purim. Later, the Talmud (Megillah 7a) interprets the phrase mishloach manos (“sending gifts”) as the requirement to send through a messenger at least two kinds of food to at least one friend.
The Rambam (Mishneh Torah, Hilchos Megillah 2:15) writes that even two poor people are required to send another poor person some food to fulfill their obligations.
The Trumas HaDeshen writes that the exchange of food is intended to make sure everyone has enough for the feast.
M’nos HaLevi writes that we send gifts to promote friendship because achdus (“unity”) rescued the Jews.
The Midrash HaGadol on Devarim points out that this demonstrates the greatness of chesed because we were rescued because of it.
Ginzei HaMelech writes that we use a messenger because this shows achdus (“unity”) in requiring another person to get involved in this mitzva. Similarly, he points out, this is why Megillas Esther always uses Yehudim for Jews, since the root of that word is echad, one. Furthermore, the giving of gifts through messengers acts as an additional tikkun for Yaakov’s giving gifts (Bireishis 32:14-17) to Eisav, the ancestor of Amalek, through messengers.
The Vilna Gaon and Midrash Shmuel note that the Jews’ celebrating in this way parallels the three parts of Haman’s plan (Esther 3:13); the joy serves to counteract Haman’s plan to destroy the Jews, the feasting serves to counteract Haman’s plan to kill the Jews, and the Yom Tov serves to counteract Haman’s plan to annihilate the Jews.
The Vilna Gaon writes that, eventually, Purim was not accepted as a full Yom Tov because that would keep people from performing the other mitzvos of Purim.
13. And Esther said, “If it is good for the king, give also tomorrow to the Yehudim who are in Shusham to do according to today’s law, and the sons of Haman hang on the tree.”
In a move reminiscent of her request (Esther 5:8) for a second party (also requesting it for “tomorrow!”), given the opportunity to ask of anything from the king, Esther asks for a seeming repeat of the previous day.
M’nos HaLevi explains that this would give the opportunity to kill more of the Jews’ enemies, avoiding the possibility of their getting revenge.
According to the Ben Ish Chai, Esther wanted two days to mirror the two days Haman planned in his decree – one day to kill off the people, and the second day to take their belongings.
The Megillas Sesarim notes that the Jewish court met in Shushan, as is evident from the fact that Mordechai (who was on the court) lived there, and the Talmud (Megillah 12a) says Achashverosh consulted the Jewish scholars regarding Vashti’s behavior. That being the case, the Shechina had some influence in Shushan since the Talmud (Brachos 6a) teaches that the Shechina resides where a Jewish court judges. Esther felt that the Shechina left as soon as Haman made the decree to kill the Jews. The second day was intended to allow for the Shechina to return.
The Ginzei HaMelech posits that Esther requested a second day to effect a tikkun for the mistake of Shaul in letting Agag live. He quotes the Pachad Yitzchak, who writes that there were previously two wars with Amalek, a defensive one when they attacked in the time of Moshe (Shemos 17:8-16), and an offensive battle in which H-Shem commanded their eradication in the time of Shaul (Shmuel 1 15:1-9). The first day symbolizes that first war because it was also defensive. The requested second day would represent the second, offensive, war. He adds that since the word, melech also represents H-Shem, Esther is asking the Creator for a future (as Rashi defines machar (“tomorrow”)) directive to destroy Amalek, in the days of Moshiach.
Rav Shlomo Brevda (zt”l) writes that Esther asked for a second day so that people would not say that Haman’s erred in his interpretation of astrology in choosing the 13th of Adar. Esther wanted it to be crystal clear that, although Haman’s astrological skills were perfectly accurate, H-Shem changed the decree to save the Jews.
According to R’ Dovid Feinstein, the word for “ready” as written (atudim) with a vuv implies permanence, in a state of remaining. In other words, the Jews should remain ready for future events. He quotes the Talmud (Shabbos 88a) about the Jews being miraculously coerced by H-Shem into accepting the Torah at Sinai under a threat of annihilation. In contrast, the Jews re-accepted the Torah at the end of Megillas Esther (Esther 9:27) under no such threatening pressure, and under not such obvious miracles.
Ginzei HaMelech writes that this could also be an allusion to the continuing future battle of the Jewish people against Amalek. He quotes the words of the Rambam (Mishneh Torah, Hilchos Megillah 2:18) that all of the works of TaNaCh will no longer be needed once Moshiach comes. The exception to this is Megillas Esther. The Ginzei HaMelech explains that the war against Amalek mentioned in the Purim story will still be relevant after Moshiach. It is a day for which the Jews should continually be prepared.
The Yad HaMelech points out that Achashverosh stresses that Mordechai sits at the king’s gate in order to allay Haman’s concern that honoring Mordechai may be beneath his dignity. This is not to imply that Achashverosh suddenly cares about Haman’s honor; in fact, if Haman were to honor somebody lowly, that could reflect poorly on Achashverosh, his king.
According to the Talmud (Megillah 16a), Haman attempted to stall by pretending to not know which Mordechai Achashverosh had in mind, and the king had to narrow down the identity of this particular Mordechai.
The Maharal says that the reason Haman’s advice of giving the honoree the crown (Esther 6:8) is not mentioned again is because the king should ordinarily give these items, himself. However, in the case of this person who is a major adviser who “sits at the gate of the king,” Haman can bring him the crown.
The Ginzei HaMelech notes that Achashverosh here does not describe Mordechai as one “who sits at my gate,” but rather the “gate of the king” because he is alluding to the fact that Mordechai sits at the gate of the King, H-Shem. Earlier (Esther 2:5), when Mordechai was referred to as the “son of Kish,” the Talmud (Megillah 12b-13a) understood that to mean that he knocked (“hikish”) at the Gates of Mercy. His praying therefore qualified him to be called one who sits at the gate of the King.
10. And the king said to Haman, “Hurry! Take the clothing and the horse of which you spoke, and do so to Mordechai the Yehudi who sits in the gate of the king. Do not drop anything from all that you said.”
According to Me’am Loez, Achashverosh rushed Haman because he does everything quickly. He rushed unthinking and headlong into every endeavor so far, from ridding himself of Vashti to signing the edict to massacre the Jews and every action in between.
Perhaps, as a former general, acting quickly is essential for Achashverosh’s character. The Alshich writes that Achashverosh rushes Haman because he was angry with him.
The Yosef Lekach bases his answer on the idea that Achashverosh’s sleep was troubled due to his not identifying Esther’s request. He thought to himself, “If Esther is requesting that I honor Mordechai for saving my life, I need to hurry to get that done before the second party tonight.”
Class Participant KL suggested that Achashverosh was rushing Haman to show his alacrity to do this, thereby proving to Esther that he would be doubly zealous to perform her request, whatever that might be.
The Ginzei HaMelech says Achashverosh was rushing Haman because he was afraid he might otherwise change his mind.
The Ginzei HaMelech also mentions that Achashverosh may have had some compassion for Haman’s self-esteem at this point, and wanted this demeaning act to be performed earlier in the morning, before most people were awake to see it. As we shall see in the next verse (iy”H), Mordechai will delay matters in order to subvert this plan.
According to the Vilna Gaon, Achashverosh was concerned of a conspiracy between Mordechai, Esther, and Haman to kill him. Therefore, he wanted Mordechai to be honored quickly to get it out of the way.
R’ Yehonoason Eibshutz says Achashverosh was in a hurry because he was aware of a prophecy that a Jew would be wearing the crown of Persia. Indeed, Darius II, the son of Esther would be the next king.
The M’nos HaLevi writes that the wicked are simply never satisfied.
The Talmud (Megillah 15b) says Haman was called a slave who sold himself for bread, referring to the famous Midrash the Haman sold himself into slavery to Mordechai when the two of them were generals and the supplies with which the king entrusted Haman ran out.
How do Mordechai’s actions take away from Haman’s list of honors? Rashi writes that Haman forgot about his honor whenever he saw Mordechai. R’ Dovid Feinstein writes that this occurs naturally to most people when we are insulted.
The Malbim, consistent in his view, Haman is saying that it is not worthy of his prestige to kill Mordechai.
In Sichos Mussar, Rav Chaim Shmulevitz writes that physical things are attainable. Honor, however, is not real, is not physical, and is completely in one’s perspective and imagination. Since it is not real, honor can never be realized.
The Ginzei HaMelech brings from the Ne’os Desheh that the last letters of “zeh einenu shava lee” (“this is not worth anything for me”) spell out H-Shem’s Name backwards. According to the Zohar (and quoted by Rabbeinu Bachya in his commentary to Bamidbar), any time the Torah contains H-Shem’s Name backwards, it means He is upset. The Ginzei HaMelech explains that ingratitude (like the kind that Haman is showing here) always angers H-Shem.
The Talmud (Chulin 139b) asks where Haman can be found in the Torah. It responds by quoting the verse in Bereishis (3:11), “hamin ha’eitz” (“from the tree”). R’ Aaron Kotler asks, what is the Talmud really asking; after all, Haman in found in Megillas Esther, every time we shout, “boo!” He explains that the Talmud is asking where Haman’s characteristic of ingratitude is in the Torah. Adam, after being given everything in the paradise known as Gan Eden, ends up disregarding his only restriction by eating from the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. That lack of appreciation is Haman in the Torah.