- The M’nos HaLevi explains that Zeresh was stressing that he will be happy at the party, as opposed to the the sadness he had just finished describing to her (Esther 5:13).
- On a deeper level, the Alshich explains that Haman’s lack of happiness was due to his status as a slave. Once Mordechai would be killed, Haman could be happy because he had no owner, and could enjoy his own sons and wealth.
The Vilna Gaon and Yosef Lekach both write that Haman was simply reminding himself of his wealth, importance, and accomplishments to get out of the bad mood in which he found himself. After, all, as the Alshich writes, three things bring us happiness: wealth, children, and power.1
The Malbim connects this statement with Haman’s root cause for needing advice. Since he considered killing Mordechai a lowly act beneath him, he mentions his greatness to emphasize his need for his advice.
M’nos HaLevi, focusing on the fact that Haman emphasizes the honor and glory of his wealth rather than the quantity of it, explains that Haman intended to stress the qualitative power of his money.
For instance, his offering silver to Achashverosh (see Esther 3:9 above) brought about his eagerly anticipated destruction of the Jews.
According to the Ben Ish Chai, Haman was attempting to imply that he came by his wealth honorably, i.e. honestly.
Akeidas Yitzchak points out that he wanted to use his wealth to kill Mordechai, his numerous children to overpower any Jewish resistance, and his power to enforce his decree. The Akeidas Yitzchak continues that these are also the very things he loses (in the same order as mentioned in this verse!). He is first humbled by leading Mordechai on a horse (see Esther 6:10-12 below); then he has to give his wealth to Esther (see Esther 8:1 below); and finally, his many sons are hanged (see Esther 9:7-10 below).
1This is not so different from Abraham Maslow’s idea of “Hierarchy of Needs” in his 1943 “A Theory of Human Motivation.”
א וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָדַע אֶת–כָּל–אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה וַיִּקְרַע מָרְדֳּכַי אֶת–בְּגָדָיו וַיִּלְבַּשׁ שַׂק וָאֵפֶר וַיֵּצֵא בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר וַיִּזְעַק זְעָקָה גְדֹלָה וּמָרָה
1. And Mordechai knew all that had happened and Mordechai ripped his clothes and dressed in sack and ashes, and he went out within the city and cried a great and bitter cry.
- The simplest explanation to how Mordechai knew about the decree to kill the Jews, assuming that is what he knew, the Alshich says, is that Mordechai was privy to that information because he sat at the king’s gate (see above 2:19).
- Rashi, however, writes that a dream revealed to Mordechai that the Jews deserved annihilation.
- It would seem that Rashi’s usually simple explanation is not as basic as the Alshich’s. R’ Dovid Feinstein writes that Rashi is focusing on the word “kol” (“all”), which implies that Mordechai knew everything about the decree – even the unpublished story of the decree’s history.
- Rav Gedalya Schorr points out that Rashi knew Mordechai learned it from a dream because the Talmud (Chagiga 5b) writes that Jewish leaders learn about future events in dreams during eras of Divine concealment. When we are not close to H-Shem and do not deserve His Favor, He does not lead us with the clarity we would want.
- R’ Hanoch of Alexander writes that Mordechai was shown the story of the decree in a dream because he knew that parts of dreams are fictional (Talmud, Brachos 55a), and he was concerned that the happy ending he foresaw was not necessarily going to happen. It was for this reason that Mordechai felt the need to bring the Jews to repentance.
- The Yismach Moshe agrees that Mordechai’s dream was limited in order to garner the greatest amount of sincere teshuva from the terrified Jews.
- According to the Yismach Leiv, Mordechai did not learn of the decree through the usual ruach hakodesh expected of a prophet because Shushan was confused (see above 3:15). Whatever the cause of the confusion, this turmoil is not conducive to prophecy. Prophecy requires genuine peace of mind and even happiness.1
1 This is the reason for Yaakov’s spiritual revival upon learning of his lost son’s positive turnabout (see Rashi to Bereishis 45:27).
The Talmud (Megillah 12a) gives two different opinions on the matter of couches. The first opinion, that of R’ Yehudah states that there were golden couches for those who deserved them, and silver couches for people of lesser status who did not deserve gold couches. R’ Nechemiah disagrees that this could have been the case, and insists that the couches were all equally made of gold and silver. After all, this would otherwise cause jealousy among the party participants. In Mayan Beis HaSho’eivah (pg. 446-7), Rav Shimon Schwab (zt”l) asks why R’ Nechemiah would think that Achashverosh would put forethought into avoiding jealousy. He answers that the entire design of the party was to make everybody happy, and a person cannot be happy when jealous.