10. And he wrote in the name of the king, Achashverosh, and he sealed with the king’s ring, and he sent books through runners on horses, riders on the rechesh the achashtirans, sons of the ramachs.
Yad HaMelech writes that the verse stresses that Mordechai signed in the name of Achashverosh because Achashverosh indeed drafted these documents physically by his own hand, something he had never done before. Then, Mordechai signed it.
Megillas Sesarim, though, explains that the decree against the Jews’ enemies was sealed by the King of kings, H-Shem.
According to Megillas Sesarim, Achashverosh is concerned that annulling the decree would lead his people to say that not only is the king fickle, but he is also playing favorites. Historically, nepotism has been a legitimate cause for rebellion. Many wars have begun over the choosing of an undeserving successor.
R’ Avigdor Bonchek writes that Achashverosh is afraid to annul the decree because he is overcompensating for his own fickleness.
In accordance with the previously mentioned opinion of the Rema (see #458 above), there are things stamped with the seal of the King that cannot be changed. There are sins for which teshuva (“repentance”) can gain atonement, but will still not be taken back, like chillul H-Shem (“debasement of H-Shem’s Name”). The Rambam (Mishneh Torah, Hilchos Teshuva 1:4) writes that such a sin can only be overwritten by a diametrical act of Kiddush H-Shem (“sanctification of H-Shem’s Name”).
6. “Because how can I [be] and see the evil which my nation will find? And how can I [be] and see the destruction of my kin?”
According to the Alshich, by adding an extra letter ches to the word, eicha (“how”) – making it the unique word, eichicha – the Esther puts a stress on her utter misery over her perceived notion that anti-Semites had already begun attacking the Jews because of the first decree. After all, once they see that the Jews are not in the monarchy’s favor, they can presume that any acts of violence or harassment against them will go unpunished.
The Megillas Sesarim adds that Esther blamed herself for the origins of Haman’s decree. This is because Haman’s decree was seemingly a consequence for Mordechai’s not bowing down to Haman (Esther 3:5-6). Mordechai behaved this way while at the king’s gate, and he was only there to look out for Esther’s well-being (Esther 2:19). This is why Esther felt somewhat responsible for the resulting decree. This is the way of the righteous: to feel responsible for a situation despite the fact that they were forced into it and the fault clearly lies in others.
R’ Dovid Feinstein writes that this is a second eicha; the first is Yirmiya’s prophetic work, Eicha, written during the destruction of first Beis HaMikdash, and second the is Esther’s, said during the threat of annihilation in exile if the king would not save the Jews.
The Malbim says that Haman mentions both invitations because he thought, in his vanity, that Esther wanted him there to help convince Achashverosh to agree to whatever it was Esther intended by having the parties, in the first place.
According to Rav Dovid Feinstein, considering Haman’s original need for advice, he is deeply aware of that fact that the advice that is best for him depends on his standing on the social ladder.
Megillas Sesarim writes that Haman believed that Esther really wanted him at the party, and only invited Achashverosh to avoid suspicion.
5. And the king said, “Rush Haman to do the word of Esther.” And the king and Haman came to the drinking party that was made by Esther.
The M’nos HaLevi writes that Esther’s invitation produced (at least one of) the desired results in that Achashverosh hated that Haman was invited. He rushed him out of frustration. He also quotes a book called Shaarei Bina that the party was already prepared; Achashverosh did not want Haman to keep Esther waiting.
The Vilna Gaon and Maharal both write that Achashverosh saw that Esther was in great discomfort, and so rushed Haman so that Esther would not suffer any longer.
The Megillas Sesarim says Achashverosh was concerned that Haman would leave or try to get out of going, so he rushed him to come, even against his will.
The Ben Ish Chai writes that Esther wanted Haman rushed. In a hurry, Haman would not have the chance to eat before attending the feast, and would be more affected by the drinking. Why would Esther’s intent influence Achashverosh? The Ben Ish Chai continues that this is the reason for the verse to refer to Achashverosh as the King, meaning that H-Shem rushed Haman because Esther wanted Him to.