- R’ Dovid Feinstein writes that the verse stresses “all the words” of this document because Mordechai wrote out all the words and details in Megillas Esther for future generations to know that they should do just as we are doing now – looking deeply into the words and letters of this holy work to glean from it lessons for our lives.
- The Talmud (Yerushalmi Megilla 2:4) adds that this is the reason why Halacha (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim 692:2, Mishna Berura 692:9) requires every Jew to hear every word of the public reading of Megillas Esther on Purim uninterrupted in order to fulfill their obligations.
- The Ben Ish Chai writes that the book to which the verse refers is the Torah, which the Talmud (Chullin 139b) says alluded to the Purim story early on (Bireishis 3:11).
- Similarly, the author of Yismach Moshe explains that everything went according to the book, the Torah. In other words, the Torah’s (Devorim 19:19) punishment for false witnesses (with some exceptions) is to the court to administer the punishment the false witnesses attempted to bring upon their intended victim. Just so, Haman’s hanging was just what he intended on Mordechai, his victim.
- On a different note, the Vilna Gaon uses this phrase to demonstrate the importance of praying with a written text. One who speaks before the King of kings should do so with a book to avoid any inappropriate thoughts.
כה וּבְבֹאָהּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אָמַר עִם–הַסֵּפֶר יָשׁוּב מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר–חָשַׁב עַל–הַיְּהוּדִים עַל–רֹאשׁוֹ וְתָלוּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת–בָּנָיו עַל–הָעֵץ
25. And in her arriving before the king, he said with the book to return his evil thought that he thought on the Yehudim onto his head, and they hanged him and his sons on the tree.
- According to Malbim, the subject of the verb uvivo’ah (usually translated as “in her arriving,” or “in its arriving”) is Haman’s original plan that had come before Achashverosh. His plan was an integral part of his demise. As he wrote earlier, the king did not want any part in a genocide. The rest of the verse then demonstrates that the king could not recall Haman’s original letters, and so was forced to hang Haman.
- According to Rashi, however, the subject is Esther. The Maharal writes that Mordechai did not want to refer to her as a queen because Achashverosh had already deduced that she was actually Mordechai’s wife.
- Rav Shmuel Hominer quotes the Talmud (Gittin 66a) that a sheid (“demon”) has a bivua (“shadow”), but not the shadow of a shadow, as people do. The similarity of this verse’s first word uvivoa (“and in her arriving”) to the Talmud’s name for a demon’s shadow is additional evidence for the idea that Esther sent out a sheid clone of herself in her dealings with Achashverosh.
- The Alshich writes that by stressing that Haman hates all the Yehudim, Mordechai was making it amply clear that Haman’s hate was not just a personal vendetta against him. Indeed, as noted earlier, he hated all Jews.
- In that sense, according to the Me’am Loez, Haman was worse than Pharaoh; whereas Haman (Esther 3:13) wanted to kill all of the Jews, Pharaoh (Shemos 1:16) wanted to kill male Jews only.
- R’ Meir Simcha of Dvinsk notes that, historically, hatred of Jews escalates when they ignore their faith.
- As the Rosh Yeshivah of Brisk, R’ Meshulam Dovid Soloveitchik, explains, Haman hated all Jews, regardless of the efforts of some to conform to his whims in an effort to befriend him, like those Jews who attended Achashverosh’s feast against the advice of their contemporary sages.
כד כִּי הָמָן בֶּן–הַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי צֹרֵר כָּל–הַיְּהוּדִים חָשַׁב עַל–הַיְּהוּדִים לְאַבְּדָם וְהִפִּל פּוּר הוּא הַגּוֹרָל לְהֻמָּם וּלְאַבְּדָם
24. Because Haman son of Hamdasa the Agagite, oppressor of all the Yehudim thought regarding the Yehudim to annihilate them, and threw pur (which is a lot) to terrify and annihilate them.
According to Malbim, the verse repeats Haman’s lineage from Agag that it already mentioned (Esther 3:1) to emphasize that Haman, as a descendant of Amalek, hated all Jews – not just Mordechai.
- The Vilna Gaon writes that the verse’s account of the Jews “doing what Mordechai wrote” refers to their giving charity and gifts.
- Malbim explains that those Jews residing in the walled cities did not start to celebrate on their own, but only began when Mordechai’s decree went out.
- M’nos HaLevi notes again that by writing it down, Mordechai retroactively transformed the Jews’ voluntary actions into the obligatory mitzvos of Purim.
- R’ Dovid Feinstein adds that although the celebrations of Purim started on the Jews’ initiative, they submitted to the rule (and changes) of the sages.
- The Dena Pishra writes that, at first, the Jews were upset with Mordechai for not bowing down to Haman (Esther 3:2), but now they recognized the wisdom behind Mordechai’s actions.
- R’ Dovid Moshe Valle also points out that the Jews realized now that Mordechai had Ruach HaKodesh because he was able to summarize the events they witnessed into this multi-level text we have before us.
- R’ Yehonason Eibshutz explains that what the Jews began doing was a continuation of what they started doing at Sinai. For this reason, although there is a prohibition (Devarim 13:1) to add mitzvos to the Torah, Mordechai had the authority to add the mitzvos of Purim in this case. The nation achieved atonement because they listened to Mordechai, and the sincerity of their re-acceptance of Torah allowed for the Torah to be new.
- The Sfas Emes and Maamar Mordechai both note that in this verse, too, the Jews did before they learned, in the same fashion as their saying (Shemos 24:7) “naaseh v’nishmah” (“we will do and we will listen”) when they first accepted the Torah.