Esther 9:27, Question 3. Who are the people included in those “who join them,” and why does the verse mention them?

  • According to most opinions, including Rashi, Ibn Ezra, Lekach Tov, M’nos HaLevi, R’ Moshe Dovid Valle, and the Vilna Gaon, “the ones who join” are future converts.
  • R’ Chaim Kanievsky wonders why Purim is different from other mitzvos that converts need to be mentioned specifically regarding Purim’s celebration. He answers that, even though converts were not party to the miraculous rescue, one’s descendants should be obligated to recite a Thanksgiving Blessing for one’s rescue, as they were affected by it, as well. This is similar to a student showing gratitude for the rescue of his rebbe. Had it not been for the rebbe’s being rescued, the student would not have had access to the World to Come. For this reason, although converts did not experience the miracle of the first Purim, their new people’s having gone through it is reason enough for them to accept the mitzva of celebrating the holiday.
  • According to the Ateres Moshe, converts are mentioned here to mirror Moshe’s statement (Devorim 29:14) that the acceptance of the Torah applies equally to those who were there and even those not there.
  • In the view of the Midrash Shmuel, converts are not always sincere about their reason for joining the Jewish people. Those who converted in Persia (Esther 8:17), for instance, may have done so in order to save their lives. However, in commemoration of the Persians who converted sincerely then, Purim was accepted as a way to celebrate future sincere converts, as well.
  • The Maharal adds that a convert can’t ignore even one rabbinic law, and rabbinic law is a motif throughout Megillas Esther.

Esther 9:26, Question 7. To what sights does the verse refer?

  • Rashi explains that the verse teaches what those who lived through these times did, what motivated their actions, and what the consequences were of those actions.
    • As the Talmud (Megilla 19a) relates, Achashverosh used the Temple vessels because he thought the Jewish exile was permanent. As a result, he killed Vashti.
    • Mordechai was motivated to not bow down to Haman by Haman’s making himself an obecjt of worship, an avoda zara. As a result, the Jews merited a miraculous rescue.
    • Haman was motivated to eradicate the Jews by his anger over Mordechai not bowing to him. This resulted in his downfall and hanging.
    • Achashverosh was motivated to review his royal history by his fear of Esther and Haman plotting against him. This resulted in the honoring of Mordechai, the hanging of Haman, and the rescue of the Jewish people.

Esther 7:6, Question 4. Why does the verse stress that Haman’s reaction was “before” the king and queen?

  • As mentioned above, the Malbim and the Vilna Gaon explain that Haman’s confusion stemmed from the fact that he was in the presence of both the king and queen, so he could not use either of his excuses.
  • Similarly, according to the Maharal, Achashverosh asked Esther why she invited Haman to the party if he is so evil. She answered that she did so intentionally to avoid the possibility of Haman giving excuses if he were confronted without both of them present.
  • The verse has a combined gematria of 3355, the same as the verse (Bireishis 38:17) regarding the amount of money Yehudah pledges to Tamar. It also has the same gematria as the verse (Devarim 13:10) commanding the punishment for someone who encourages others to worship idol. Finally, it also has the same gematria as the verse in Tehillim (67:4) that the nations are happy when H-Shem governs the nations. Perhaps, just as the verse climactically demonstrates H-Shem’s active rescue of the Jews from their impending holocaust, all of these verses have to do with H-Shem’s supervision of the world. Just as the Talmud (Sotah 10a) says that He was involved with the otherwise seemingly elicit relationship between Yehuda and Tamar, so too He alone should be worshiped – without the false gods of idolatry. Similarly, the point of our world is to reach the level where everyone recognizes the guiding Hand of H-Shem in all of the events of the world.

Esther 4:14, Question 7. Why does the verse use “kazos” for the second “eis,” instead of “hazos,” as in the first mention?

  • According to Rashi, the word, “kazos” (“like the time”) is in the future tense. Accordingly, Mordechai is reminding Esther that there is no surety in her remaining queen in the future. For all she knows, Achashverosh will get rid of her in the same way he got rid of the last queen. If that would be the case, her effectiveness in defending the Jews has a potential expiration date.
  • According to Ibn Ezra, Mordechai is emphasizing to Esther that this very occasion is the reason why she is in the royal position in which she finds herself.
  • The Ohel Moshe writes that we are all here for one moment, to act in a way that will glorify H-Shem. We are all Divinely placed in the positions in which we find ourselves for a reason – whether we understand that reason, or not.
  • R’ Dovid Feinstein writes that Jews in prominent positions should realize that they are only there to make a Kiddush H-Shem.
  • Along the same lines, Vilna Gaon writes that Mordechai is telling Esther that her refusal will not just forfeit a reward, but will also be punished for being responsible for the deaths of the Jews.
  • The Malbim writes that H-Shem always has a set time to rescue the Jews, and Mordechai is telling Esther that this is the time to join in the rescue.
  • According to the Me’am Loez, Mordechai is pointing out that the Jews living in Persia might despair over time, and lose faith in their redemption.
  • Another opinion he brings is that this matter is time-sensitive, as Achashverosh may not have time to send messengers to recall the decree over his giant kingdom. G-d Willing, we will see in the final chapters of Megillas Esther that this concern was legitimate.

Esther 4:14, Question 4. Why does Mordechai say rescue will come from “another place?”

  • When Mordechai says rescue will come from “another place,” he means that rescue will come from H-Shem. He can be confident about this because the Yerushalmi (Simchos 8) quotes a verse (Vayikra 26:44) in saying that H-Shem promised that He would always rescue the Jews.
  • Therefore, the Kissey Shlomo and Dina Pishra write that H-Shem will find a way to rescue His people.
  • According to the Me’am Loez, one of the methods H-Shem could use in stopping Achashverosh is killing him through a rival nation. Mordechai is pointing out to Esther that, as queen, this method would be precarious for her; historically, fates worse than death can await a conquered queen.
  • The Chasam Sofer points out that Makom “place” can mean H-Shem, as we say in the phrase we use to comfort mourners.
  • R’ Moshe Meir Weiss points out that this is another example of Megillas Esther performing mental acrobatics to avoid using H-Shem’s Name.
  • R’ Shmuel Houminer asks why Mordechai is pushing Esther to perform this action. Did he not have faith in H-Shem. He answers that a person is required to have faith in H-Shem, but not trust specifically in his own method of achieving his goal.

Esther 3:7, Question 5. Why does the lot fall on the month of Adar?

  • Maamar Mordechai points out that, when the Jews were in Egypt, the ten plagues occurred for one month each. That being the case, the second to last plague, that of darkness, happened one month before Passover, which would mean it fell in Adar. Haman assumed the darkness was a plague that hurt the Jews since so many of them died then (see Rashi to Shemos 10:22 and 13:18). After all, four fifths of the Jews died in Egypt because they did not believe in their upcoming rescue. H-Shem killed these unfortunates during the plague of darkness to avoid the Egyptians seeing this, and assuming the Jews’ G-d is no longer with them.1 The Jews in Persia, by attending Achashverosh’s party, indicated that they, too, lost faith in their redemption, and this is why the lots falling on Adar so pleased Haman.
  • Adar is also the month when Moshe died. According to the Talmud (Megillah 13b), Haman knew this because it is so written in the end of Devarim (34:8) and can be calculated from the book of Yehoshua. According to our tradition, the seventh of Adar, his date of death, is also his date of birth. Rabbi Mendel Weinbach writes that Haman did not know this because, as opposed to his date of birth, his date of death is only found in the Oral Torah.
  • The Abudraham calculates that Adar 13 would mark the end of the seven-day mourning period (shiva) for Moshe. According to the Maharsha, that seven-day period of mourning continues in some mystical way the merits of the mourned. After that point, the dead only receive merit of others step up to take over their spiritual roles. Interestingly, Rabbi Dovid Feinstein notes that, Moshe having been born on 7 Adar, his bris (circumcision) would have been on 14 Adar, Purim!2

1It bespeaks a certain callousness that the Egyptians seemed not to notice the sudden disappearance of several million people.

2However, since Moshe was born complete and circumcised (Talmud, Sotah 12a), his bris would only require a symbolic pin-prick of blood called “hatafas dam bris” (Shulchan Aruch Yoreh Deah 262:1 and 264:1), and this procedure would not be help on a Shabbos (Shulchan Aruch Yoreh Deah 260:2 and 263:1). Therefore, Moshe’s symbolic bris was held on the following day, Shushan Purim.