- The Ben Ish Chai writes that the book to which the verse refers is the Torah, which the Talmud (Chullin 139b) says alluded to the Purim story early on (Bireishis 3:11).
- Similarly, the author of Yismach Moshe explains that everything went according to the book, the Torah. In other words, the Torah’s (Devorim 19:19) punishment for false witnesses (with some exceptions) is to the court to administer the punishment the false witnesses attempted to bring upon their intended victim. Just so, Haman’s hanging was just what he intended on Mordechai, his victim.
- On a different note, the Vilna Gaon uses this phrase to demonstrate the importance of praying with a written text. One who speaks before the King of kings should do so with a book to avoid any inappropriate thoughts.
א וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָדַע אֶת–כָּל–אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה וַיִּקְרַע מָרְדֳּכַי אֶת–בְּגָדָיו וַיִּלְבַּשׁ שַׂק וָאֵפֶר וַיֵּצֵא בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר וַיִּזְעַק זְעָקָה גְדֹלָה וּמָרָה
1. And Mordechai knew all that had happened and Mordechai ripped his clothes and dressed in sack and ashes, and he went out within the city and cried a great and bitter cry.
- The simplest explanation to how Mordechai knew about the decree to kill the Jews, assuming that is what he knew, the Alshich says, is that Mordechai was privy to that information because he sat at the king’s gate (see above 2:19).
- Rashi, however, writes that a dream revealed to Mordechai that the Jews deserved annihilation.
- It would seem that Rashi’s usually simple explanation is not as basic as the Alshich’s. R’ Dovid Feinstein writes that Rashi is focusing on the word “kol” (“all”), which implies that Mordechai knew everything about the decree – even the unpublished story of the decree’s history.
- Rav Gedalya Schorr points out that Rashi knew Mordechai learned it from a dream because the Talmud (Chagiga 5b) writes that Jewish leaders learn about future events in dreams during eras of Divine concealment. When we are not close to H-Shem and do not deserve His Favor, He does not lead us with the clarity we would want.
- R’ Hanoch of Alexander writes that Mordechai was shown the story of the decree in a dream because he knew that parts of dreams are fictional (Talmud, Brachos 55a), and he was concerned that the happy ending he foresaw was not necessarily going to happen. It was for this reason that Mordechai felt the need to bring the Jews to repentance.
- The Yismach Moshe agrees that Mordechai’s dream was limited in order to garner the greatest amount of sincere teshuva from the terrified Jews.
- According to the Yismach Leiv, Mordechai did not learn of the decree through the usual ruach hakodesh expected of a prophet because Shushan was confused (see above 3:15). Whatever the cause of the confusion, this turmoil is not conducive to prophecy. Prophecy requires genuine peace of mind and even happiness.1
1 This is the reason for Yaakov’s spiritual revival upon learning of his lost son’s positive turnabout (see Rashi to Bereishis 45:27).